Conversations on building back better: Week 7 of TED2020

Week 7 of TED2020 featured conversations on where the coronavirus pandemic is heading, the case for reparations, how we can better connect with each other and how capitalism must change to build a more equitable society. Below, a recap of insights shared throughout the week.

Bill Gates discusses where the coronavirus pandemic is heading, in conversation with head of TED Chris Anderson at TED2020: Uncharted on June 29, 2020. (Photo courtesy of TED)

Bill Gates, technologist, philanthropist

Big idea: The coronavirus pandemic isn’t close to being over, but we’re making scientific progress to mitigate its impact.

How? Bill Gates talks best (and worst) case scenarios for the coronavirus pandemic in the months ahead. This fall could be quite bad in the United States, he admits, as there is speculation among researchers that COVID-19 may be seasonal and its force of infection will increase as the weather cools. But there’s also good progress on the innovation track, he says: the steroid dexamethasone was found to have benefits for critically ill patients, and monoclonal antibodies seem promising, as well. In short: we’ll have some additional support for the fall if things do indeed get worse. Gates also explains the challenges of reducing virus transmission (namely, the difficulty of identifying “superspreaders”); provides an update on promising vaccine candidates; offers his thoughts on reopening; takes a moment to address conspiracy theories circulating about himself; and issues a critical call to fellow philanthropists to ramp up their action, ambition and awareness to create a better world for all.


“When we think about the case for reparations, we are thinking about a case that is not exclusively centered on the harms and injustices and atrocities associated with slavery itself, but we have to view slavery as a crucible that created a subsequent array of atrocities that are associated with white supremacy in the United States,” says economist and author William “Sandy” Darity. He speaks with TED current affairs curator Whitney Pennington Rodgers at TED2020: Uncharted on June 30, 2020. (Photo courtesy of TED)

William “Sandy” Darity, economist, author

Big Idea: The time has come to seriously talk about reparations: direct financial payments to the descendants of slaves for hundreds of years of injustice.

How? A growing consciousness of America’s systemic white supremacy (built on mass incarceration, police violence, discrimination in markets and the immense wealth gap between black and white) has brought contemporary politics to a boil. How does the country dismantle the intertwined legacies of slavery and the unequal, trans-generational wealth distribution that has overwhelmingly benefitted whites? Reparations are not only a practical means to address the harm visited upon Black Americans by centuries of economic exclusion but also a chance for white America to acknowledge the damage that has been done — a crucial step to reconciliation and true equality. To truly redress the harm done to descendants of slavery, reparations must seek to eliminate the racial wealth gap. Darity believes that, for the first time since Reconstruction promised ex-slaves “40 acres and a mule,” reparations are entering the mainstream political discussion, and a once wildly speculative idea seems to lie within the realm of possibility. “It’s always an urgent time to adopt reparations,” Darity says. “It has been an urgent time for the 155 years since the end of American slavery, where no restitution has been provided. It’s time for the nation to pay the debt; it’s time for racial justice.”


Chloé Valdary shares the thinking behind the “theory of enchantment,” the process by which you delight someone with a concept, idea, personality or thing. She speaks with TED business curator Corey Hajim at TED2020: Uncharted on June 30, 2020. (Photo courtesy of TED)

Chloé Valdary, writer, entrepreneur

Big Idea: Pop culture can show us how to love ourselves and one another, the first step in creating systemic change.

How? Chloé Valdary developed the “theory of enchantment,” a social-emotional learning program that applies pop culture to teach people how to meet the hardships of life by developing tools for resilience, including learning to love oneself. This love for oneself, she believes, is foundational to loving others. Built on the idea of “enchantment” — the process by which you delight someone with a concept, idea, personality or thing — the program uses beloved characters like Disney’s Moana, lyrics from Kendrick Lamar and Beyoncé and even trusted brands like Nike to teach three principles: treat people like human beings not like political abstractions; never criticize to tear down a person down, only to uplift and empower; and root everything you do in love and compassion. The program aims to engender love and ultimately advance social change. “If you don’t understand the importance of loving yourself and loving others, you’re more prone to descend into rage and to map into madness and become that bad actor and to treat people unfairly, unkindly,” she says. “As a result that will, of course, contribute to a lot of the systemic injustice that we’re seeing today.”


“Hope is the oxygen of democracy and we, through inequality and the economic injustice, we see far too much of an America are literally asphyxiating hope,” says Darren Walker, president of the Ford Foundation. He speaks with head of TED Chris Anderson at TED2020: Uncharted on July 1st, 2020. (Photo courtesy of TED)

Darren Walker, president of the Ford Foundation

Big idea: We need to consider a new kind of philanthropy and capitalism rooted in accountability and equity.

Why? “The question for the wealthy, the privileged philanthropists is not ‘what do I do to give back’ but ‘what am I willing to give up?’” says Darren Walker, discussing how comfort and privilege are interlinked and how their relationship contributes to injustice. Walker explains that for true progress to be made, tax policies must be changed for wealthier citizens and entitlement cast aside. In a country full of exhaustion, grief and anger, Walker calls for nuance in handling complex ideas like defunding the police. “I believe there’s going to need to be a reckoning in corporate America that is aligned with the reckoning in the rest of America. That we have built into our mechanisms of promotion, of recognition and success, barriers,” says Walker. In order for change to be long-lasting, Walker believes we need to hold corporations accountable far beyond how long the media is talking about them and eliminate tokenism. “I believe that we no longer can wait for that ‘someday’, that this generation should not have to say ‘someday in the future, America will be America,’” Walker says, quoting Langston Hughes. “The time for America to be America is today.”

Quote of the talk: “Hope is the oxygen of democracy and we, through inequality and the economic injustice, we see far too much of an America are literally asphyxiating hope. Just as we saw the murder of George Floyd, the breath was taken out of his body by a man who was there to protect and promote. It’s a metaphor for what is happening in our society, where people who are Black and Brown, queer, marginalized are literally being asphyxiated by a system that does not recognize their humanity if we are to build back better, that must change.”

from TED Blog https://ift.tt/38yZzFC

Reducing the load: ways to support novice programmers

What’s your experience of learning to program? Have you given up and thought it just wasn’t for you? This has been the case for many people — and it’s the focus of a lot of research. Now that teaching programming is in the curriculum in many countries around the world, it’s even more important that we understand what we can do to make learning to program accessible and achievable for all students.

What is cognitive load for learners?

In education, one of the problems thought to cause students difficulty with learning anything — not just programming — is cognitive load. Cognitive load, a concept introduced in the 1980s by John Sweller, has received a lot of attention in the last few years. It is based on the idea that our working memory (the part of our memory that processes what we are currently doing) can only deal with a limited amount of information at any one time. For example, you can imagine that when you are just starting to learn to program, there is an awful lot going on in your working memory, and this can make the task of assimilating it all very challenging; selection, loops, arrays, and objects are all tricky concepts that you need to get to grips with. Cognitive load is a stress on a learner’s working memory, reducing their ability to process and learn new information.

Dr Briana Morrison (University of Nebraska-Omaha)

Finding ways of teaching programming that reduce cognitive load is really key for all of us engaged in computing education, so we were delighted to welcome Dr Briana Morrison (University of Nebraska-Omaha) as the speaker at our latest research seminar. Briana’s talk was titled ‘Using subgoal Labels to Reduce Cognitive Load in Introductory Programming’.

The thrust of Briana’s and her colleagues’ research is that, as educators, we can design instructional experiences around computer programming so that they minimise cognitive load. Using worked examples with subgoal labels is one approach that has been shown to help a lot with this. 

Subgoal labels help students memorise and generalise

Think back to the way you may have learned mathematics: in maths, worked examples are often used to demonstrate how to solve a problem step by step. The same can be done when teaching programming. For example, if we want to write a loop in Python, the teacher can show us a step-by-step approach using an example, and we can then apply this approach to our own task. Sounds reasonable, right?

What subgoal labels add is that, rather than just calling the steps of the worked example ‘Step 1’, ‘Step 2’, etc., the teacher uses memorable labels. For example, a subgoal label might be ‘define and initialise variables’. Such labels not only help us to remember, but more importantly, they help us to generalise the teacher’s example and grasp how to use it for many other applications.

Subgoal labels help students perform better

In her talk, Briana gave us examples of subgoal labels in use and explained how to write subgoal labels, as well as how to work with subject experts to find the best subgoal labels for a particular programming construct or area of teaching. She also shared with us some very impressive results from her team’s research examining the impact of this teaching approach. 

Screenshot of Dr Briana Morrison's research seminar talk

Briana and her colleagues have carried out robust studies comparing students who were taught using subgoals with students who weren’t. The study she discussed in the seminar involved 307 students; students in the group that learned with worked examples containing subgoal labels gave more complete answers to questions, and showed that they could understand the programming constructs at a higher level, than students who learned with worked examples that didn’t contain the subgoal labels. The study also found that the impact of subgoal labels was even more marked for students in at-risk groups (i.e. students at risk of performing badly or of dropping out).

It seems that this teaching approach works really well. The study’s participants were students in introductory computer science classes at university, so it would be interesting to see whether these results can be replicated at school level, where arguably cognitive load is even more of an issue.

Briana’s seminar was very well received, with attendees asking lots of questions about the details of the research and how it could be replicated. Her talk even included some audience participation, which got us all tapping our heads and rubbing our bellies!

Screenshot of Dr Briana Morrison's research seminar talk

Very helpfully, Briana shared a list of resources related to subgoal labels, which you can access via her talk slides on our seminars page.

You can also read more about the background and practical application of cognitive load theory and worked examples including subgoal labels in the Pedagogy Quick Read series we’re producing as part of our work in the National Centre of Computing Education.

Next up in our series

If you missed the seminar, you can find Briana’s presentation slides on our seminars page, where we’ll also soon upload a recording of her talk.

In our next seminar on Tuesday 14 July at 17:00–18:00 BST / 12:00–13:00 EDT / 9:00–10:00 PDT / 18:00–19:00 CEST, we’ll welcome Maria Zapata, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, who will be talking about computational thinking and how we can assess the computational thinking skills of very young children. To join the seminar, simply sign up with your name and email address and we’ll email you the link and instructions. If you attended Briana’s seminar, the link remains the same.

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